राम, लक्ष्मण, भरत, शत्रुघ्न का जनम >> बाल-काण्ड



After the completion of Vedic ritual all the kings and Sage Rishyasringa took leave of Dasharatha and went away to their countries. After some time Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna are born. Their virtues in childhood and rituals connected thereto are depicted here. Dasharatha then contemplates the marriages of the princes, since marrying sons after completion of education is customary. At that juncture Sage Vishvamitra arrives at the court of Dasharatha seeking help from the king. Dasharatha receives him adoring in high esteem.

निर्वृत्ते तु क्रतौ तस्मिन् हयमेधे महात्मनः |
प्रति गृह्य अमरा भागान् प्रतिजग्मुः यथा आगतम् || १-१८-१
On the competition of the horse ritual of high-souled Dasharatha, the golds having received their portion of sacrificial oblation returned to their abodes as they have come. [1-18-1]
समाप्त दीक्षा नियमः पत्नी गण समन्वितः |
प्रविवेश पुरीम् राजा स भृत्य बल वाहनः || १-१८-२
The king completing his consecratory vows held for horse ritual, entered Ayodhya city along with the company of his queens, servants, guards and vehicles. [1-18-2]
यथा अर्हम् पूजिताः तेन राज्ञा च पृथिवीश्वराः |
मुदिताः प्रययुः देशान् प्रणंय मुनि पुंगवम् || १-१८-३
The other kings who arrived for the ritual are delighted when befittingly honoured by the king Dasharatha, and they too returned to their countries, after suitably adoring the eminent sage Vashishta. [1-18-3]
श्रीमताम् गच्छताम् तेषाम् स्वगृहाणि पुरात् ततः |
बलानि राज्ञाम् शुभ्राणि प्रहृष्टानि चकाशिरे || १-१८-४
The entourages of those kings who set forth homeward from that city are highly gladdened and shone forth in fine fettle. [1-18-4]
गतेषु पृथिवीशेषु राजा दशरथः पुनः |
प्रविवेश पुरीम् श्रीमान् पुरस्कृत्य द्विजोत्तमान् || १-१८-५
On the departure of visiting kings, then that fortunate king Dasharatha entered the city Ayodhya, keeping eminent Brahman priests ahead of him in the procession. [1-18-5]
शांतया प्रययौ सार्धम् ऋष्यशृङ्गः सुपूजितः |
अनुगंयमानो राज्ञा च सानुयात्रेण धीमता || १-१८-६
Well adored by king Dasharatha sage Rishyasringa also travelled along with his wife Shanta, followed by his father-in-law King Romapada, and along with other co-travellers, namely the entourage of Romapada. [1-18-6]
एवम् विसृज्य तान् सर्वान् राजा संपूर्ण मानसः |
उवास सुखितः तत्र पुत्र उत्पत्तिम् विचिंतयन् || १-१८-७
On dispersing all of them king Dasharatha gratifyingly dwelled there in Ayodhya, with a satiated heart dwelling upon the birth of his sons. [1-18-7]
ततो यज्ञे समाप्ते तु ऋतूनाम् षट् समत्ययुः |
ततः च द्वादशे मासे चैत्रे नावमिके तिथौ || १-१८-८
नक्क्षत्रे अदिति दैवत्ये स्व उच्छ संस्थेषु पंचसु |
ग्रहेषु कर्कटे लग्ने वाक्पता इंदुना सह || १-१८-९
प्रोद्यमाने जगन्नाथम् सर्व लोक नमस्कृतम् |
कौसल्या अजनयत् रामम् सर्व लक्षण संयुतम् || १-१८-१०
विष्णोः अर्धम् महाभागम् पुत्रम् ऐक्ष्वाकु नंदनम् |
लोहिताक्षम् महाबाहुम् रक्त ओष्टम् दुंदुभि स्वनम् || १-१८-११
On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month, i.e., in chaitra mAsa, and on the ninth day of that chaitra month [April-May], when it is punarvasu nakshatra yukta navamI tithi, i.e., when the ruling star of that ninth day is punarvasu, for which Aditi is the presiding deity; and when five of the nine planets - sUrya, kuja, guru, shukra, shani are in ucCha sthAna-s, namely, when those planets are in ascension in their respective houses - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s; and when chandra yukta guru, karkaTa lagne - Jupiter in conjuction with Moon is ascendant in Cancer, and when day is advancing, Queen Kausalya gave birth to a son with all the divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, roseate lips, voice like drumbeat, and who took birth to delight the Ikshwaku dynasty and adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome of Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-8, 9, 10, 11]
कौसल्या शुशुभे तेन पुत्रेण अमित तेजसा |
यथा वरेण देवानाम् अदितिः वज्र पाणिना || १-१८-१२
Kausalya shone forth with such a son whose resplendence is unlimited, as with lady Aditi who once stood out with her son Indra, the best one among gods. [1-18-12]
भरतो नाम कैकेय्याम् जज्ञे सत्य पराक्रमः |
साक्षात् विष्णोः चतुर्थ भागः सर्वैः समुदितो गुणैः || १-१८-१३
Queen Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, one embodied with all merits, and whose truthfulness itself is his valour and who is fourth component of manifest Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-13]
अथ लक्ष्मण शत्रुघ्नौ सुमित्रा अजनयत् सुतौ |
वीरौ सर्व अस्त्र कुशलौ विष्णोः अर्ध समन्वितौ | १-१८-१४
Queen Sumitra then gave birth to two sons who are the embodied epitomes of Vishnu, namely Lakshmana, and Shatrughna, who are valiant ones and experts in all kinds of weaponry. [1-18-14]
पुष्ये जातः तु भरतो मीन लग्ने प्रसन्न धीः |
सार्पे जातौ तु सौमित्री कुळीरे अभ्युदिते रवौ || १-१८-१५
With the dawn of sun on the next day, fair-minded Bharata is born under Pisces where puSyami is the star of day, later the sons of Sumitra, namely Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born under Cancer, where aaSreSa is the star of the day, i.e., the tenth of chaitra month, [1-18-15]
राज्ञः पुत्रा महात्मानः चत्वारो जज्ञिरे पृथक् |
गुणवंतः अनुरूपाः च रुच्या प्रोष्ठ पदोपमाः || १-१८-१६
Thus there are four great-souled sons of Dasharatha, born on separate instances, who are virtuous, charming, and by brilliance they are in similitude with two stars of each of the asterisms called puurva bhadra and uttara bhaadra. [1-18-16]
जगुः कलम् च गंधर्वा ननृतुः च अप्सरो गणाः |
देव दुंदुभयो नेदुः पुष्प वृष्टिः च खात् पतत् || १-१८-१७
उत्सवः च महान् आसीत् अयोध्यायाम् जनाकुलः |
The celestial singers sang melodiously, paradisiacal dancing parties danced, divine drums drummed and heavens rained flowers, with all this there is a great festivity in Ayodhya with thronging people. [1-18-17, 18a]
रथ्याः च जन संबाधा नट नर्तक संकुलाः || १-१८-१८
गायनैः च विराविण्यो वादनैः च तथ अपरैः |
विरेजुर् विपुलाः तत्र सर्व रत्न समन्विताः || १-१८-१९
Hilarity filled the streets with people stampeding them and with the flurry of actors, dancers, singers and instrumentalists, as well by other onlookers, and there on the streets widely strewn are all kinds of gems appreciating the artists. [1-18-18b, 19]
प्रदेयांश्च ददौ राजा सूत मागध वंदिनाम् |
ब्राह्मणेभ्यो ददौ वित्तम् गो धनानि सहस्रशः || १-१८-२०
The king gave worthy gifts to eulogisers, bard singers, and panegyrists, and to Brahmans he gave funds and wealth in the form of thousands of cows. [1-18-20]
अतीत्य एकादश आहम् तु नाम कर्म तथा अकरोत् |
ज्येष्ठम् रामम् महात्मानम् भरतम् कैकयी सुतम् || १-१८-२१
सौमित्रिम् लक्ष्मणम् इति शत्रुघ्नम् अपरम् तथा |
वसिष्ठः परम प्रीतो नामानि कुरुते तदा || १-१८-२२
Elapsed are eleven days and the naming ceremony is performed, then Vashishta, the chief priest, named the high-souled elder one as Rama, Kaikeyi's son as Bharata, and one son of Sumitra as Lakshmana and the other as Shatrughna [1-18-21, 22]
ब्राह्मणान् भोजयामास पौरान् जानपदान् अपि |
उददद् ब्राह्मणानाम् च रत्नौघम् अमलम् बहु || १-१८-२३
तेषाम् जन्म क्रिय आदीनि सर्व कर्माणि अकारयत् |
The king feasted Brahmans, urbanites and villagers and he gifted many valuable gems to Brahmans in an unlimited way, and all the rituals of birth and ceremonies sequel to it like naming ceremony, first-food-feeding ceremony, first-hair-removal ceremony, and sacred thread ceremony are performed in respect of the princes. [1-18-23, 24a]
तेषाम् केतुः इव ज्येष्ठो रामो रतिकरः पितुः |१-१८-२४
बभूव भूयो भूतानाम् स्वयम् भूः इव सम्मतः |
Among those princes the eldest one Rama is like a flagstaff and a delight of his father Dasharatha, and he became acceptable to all beings like the self-created Brahma. [1-18-24b, 25a]
सर्वे वेद विदः शूराः सर्वे लोकहिते रताः || १-१८-२५
सर्वे ज्ञानोपसंपन्नाः सर्वे समुदिता गुणैः |
All the princes are scholars in Veda-s, valiant ones, all are interested in the welfare of the world, all are intellectuals and all of them possess an air of probity. [1-18-25b, 26a]
तेषाम् अपि महातेजा रामः सत्य पराक्रमः || १-१८-२६
इष्टः सर्वस्य लोकस्य शशांक इव निर्मलः |
Among them the great resplendent Rama, whose valour itself is his truthfulness, is the dear one to all the world like the tranquil moon. [1-18-26b, 27a]
गज स्कन्धे अश्व पृष्टे च रथ चर्यासु सम्मतः || १-१८-२७
धनुर्वेदे च निरतः पितुः शुशॄषणे रतः |
Rama is admittedly a champion of riding elephants and horses, also in tactical charioting, and he rejoices in the art of archery, and absorbed in the obedient service of his father. [1-18-27b, 28a]
बाल्यात् प्रभृति सुस्निग्धो लक्ष्मणो लक्ष्मि वर्धनः || १-१८-२८
रामस्य लोकरामस्य भ्रातुः ज्येष्ठस्य नित्यशः |
Right from childhood Lakshmana, the enhancer of prosperity, is always amiable towards his world-charming elder brother Rama. [1-18-28b, 29a]
सर्व प्रिय करः तस्य रामस्य अपि शरीरतः || १-१८-२९
लक्ष्मणो लक्ष्मि संपन्नो बहिः प्राण इव अपरः |
Lakshmana who is endowed with the wealth of dedication dedicated himself to Rama with bodily service, and while performing all agreeable deeds in respect of Rama, he behaved like Rama's alter ego. [1-18-29b, 30a]
न च तेन विना निद्राम् लभते पुरुषोत्तमः || १-१८-३०
मृष्टम् अन्नम् उपानीतम् अश्नाति न हि तम् विना |
That best one among the men Rama does not get his sleep without Lakshmana and he would not eat food brought for him, however delicious it may be, without Lakshmana. [1-18-30b, 31a]
यदा हि हयम् आरूढो मृगयाम् याति राघवः || १-१८-३१
अथ एनम् पृष्ठतः अभ्येति स धनुः परिपालयन् |
Whenever Raghava mounts a horse and goes on a hunting game Lakshmana rushes after him wielding his bow as a squire. [1-18-31b, 32a]
भरतस्य अपि शत्रुघ्नो लक्ष्मण अवरजो हि सः || १-१८-३२
प्राणैः प्रियतरो नित्यम् तस्य च आसीत् तथा प्रियः |
Lakshmana's younger brother Shatrughna is a dear one to Bharata, like that Bharata too held Shatrughna dearer than his own lives. [1-18-32b, 33a]
स चतुर्भिः महाभागैः पुत्रैः दशरथः प्रियैः || १-१८-३३
बभूव परम प्रीतो देवैः इव पितामहः |
King Dasharatha is highly gladdened with four of his highly fortunate sons like the Forefather Brahma with gods in heaven. [1-18-33]
ते यदा ज्ञान संपन्नाः सर्वैः समुदिता गुणैः || १-१८-३४
ह्रीमन्तः कीर्तिमन्तः च सर्वज्ञा दीर्घ दर्शिनः |
तेषाम् एवम् प्रभावाणाम् सर्वेषाम् दीप्त तेजसाम् || १-१८-३५
पिता दशरथो हृष्टो ब्रह्मा लोकाधिपो यथा |
When all of the four sons are thus prospering with prudence, gifted with all the merits, self-conscious to do wrong deeds, well-known for their gentility, knowers of pros and cons and even the conscientious princes, then their father Dasharatha is contented in respect of all of them who are such radiantly brilliant and potential princes, like Brahma. [1-18-34b, 35, 36a]
ते च अपि मनुज व्याघ्रा वैदिक अध्ययने रताः || १-१८-३६
पितृ शुश्रूषण रता धनुर् वेदे च निष्टिताः |
Even those tigerly-men, namely the princes, are engrossed in the studies of Veda-s, delighted to render service to their father and they are also the experts in art of archery. [1-18-36b, 37a]
अथ राजा दशरथः तेषाम् दार क्रियाम् प्रति || १-१८-३७
चिंतयामास धर्मात्मा सह उपाध्यायः स बान्धवः |
Then the noble souled Dasharatha contemplated along with his priestly teachers and relatives about the matrimonial alliances of his sons. [1-18-37b, 38a]
तस्य चिंतयमानस्य मंत्रि मध्ये महात्मनः || १-१८-३८
अभ्यागच्छत् महातेजा विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः |
While the great souled Dasharatha is discussing the marriages of princes among his ministers, the highly powerful sage Vishvamitra arrived. [1-18-38b, 39a]
स राज्ञो दर्शन आकांक्षी द्वार अध्यक्षान् उवाच ह || १-१८-३९
शीघ्रम् आख्यात माम् प्राप्तम् कौशिकम् गाधिनः सुतम् |
Desirous to have an audience with king Vishvamitra said to the doorkeeper, "Let the king be informed quickly that I, the son of Gadhi from the dynasty of Kushi, have come" [1-18-39b, 40a]
तत् श्रुत्वा वचनम् तस्य राज्ञो वेश्म प्रदुद्रुवुः || १-१८-४०
संभ्रान्त मनसः सर्वे तेन वाक्येन चोदिताः |
On listening those words all the doorkeepers are dumbfounded, and ushered by those words they quickly rushed to the place of Dasharatha. [1-18-40b, 41a]
ते गत्वा राज भवनम् विश्वामित्रम् ऋषिम् तदा || १-१८-४१
प्राप्तम् आवेदयामासुः नृपायैः इक्ष्वाकवे तदा |
Then on their arriving at the king's palace the doorkeepers have announced to the king of Ikshvaku-s, namely Dasharatha, about the arrival of sage Vishvamitra. [1-18-41b, 42a]
तेषाम् तत् वचनम् श्रुत्वा सपुरोधाः समाहितः || १-१८-४२
प्रति उज्जगाम संहृष्टो ब्रह्माणम् इव वासवः |
On hearing that message from doorkeepers Dasharatha is highly pleased and he has gone towards Vishvamitra in a self-possessed manner along with royal priests, as Indra would ceremoniously go towards Brahma. [1-18-42b, 43a]
तम् दृष्ट्वा ज्वलितम् दीप्त्या तपसम् संशित व्रतम् || १-१८-४३
प्रहृष्ट वदनो राजा ततः अर्घ्यम् उपहारयत् |
Then on seeing the resplendent sage Vishvamitra, whose radiance is by his own ascesis and who has severe self-discipline, the king offered water with a gladsome aspect, as first customary hospitality in receiving unexpected guest. [1-18-43b, 44a]
स राज्ञः प्रतिगृह्य अर्घ्यम् शास्त्र दृष्टेन कर्मणा || १-१८-४४
कुशलम् च अव्ययम् च एव पर्य पृच्छत् नराधिपम् |
On receiving water from the king scripturally and customarily Vishvamitra enquired after the well-being and welfare of king Dasharatha. [1-18-44b, 45a]
पुरे कोशे जनपदे बान्धवेषु सुहृत्सु च || १-१८-४५
कुशलम् कौशिको राज्ञः पर्यपृच्छत् सुधार्मिकः |
That highly righteous sage Vishvamitra asked the king after the well-being of city, exchequer, rural areas, friends and relatives. [1-18-45b, 46a]
अपि ते संनताः सर्वे सामंत रिपवो जिताः || १-१८-४६
दैवम् च मानुषम् च एव कर्म ते साधु अनुष्टितम् |
Sage Vishvamitra asked Dasharatha, "Are all of the provincial kings acquiescent to you, and all your enemies conquered? Are you properly performing the devotional and social works?" [1-18-46b, 47a]
वसिष्ठम् च समागंय कुशलम् मुनिपुंगवः || १-१८-४७
ऋषीम् च तान् यथा न्यायम् महाभाग उवाच ह |
And on meeting the eminent sage Vashishta and with them the other exalted sages according to custom Vishvamitra asked after their well-being. [1-18-47b, 48a]
ते सर्वे हृष्ट मनसः तस्य राज्ञो निवेशनम् || १-१८-४८
विविशुः पूजिताः तेन निषेदुः च यथा अर्हतः |
Then adoringly invited by the king Dasharatha all of them gladly entered the palace and they took their seats according to protocol. [1-18-48b, 49a]
अथ हृष्ट मना राजा विश्वामित्रम् महामुनिम् || १-१८-४९
उवाच परम उदारो हृष्टः तम् अभिपूजयन् |
Then the very generous king Dasharatha is gladdened at heart at the arrival of Vishvamitra, and he spoke this way feeling happy to adore that sage. [1-18-49b, 50a]
यथा अमृतस्य संप्राप्तिः यथा वर्षम् अनूदके || १-१८-५०
यथा सदृश दारेषु पुत्र जन्म अप्रजस्य वै |
प्रणष्टस्य यथा लाभो यथा हर्षो महोदये || १-१८-५१
तथा एव आगमनम् मन्ये स्वागतम् ते महामुने |
"I deem your arrival is in the vein of mortals attaining ambrosia, rainfall in a droughty land, a barren father begetting a son through his deserving wife, a regain of long lost treasures, and the gladness at a great happening, oh, great saint, welcome to you." [1-18-50b, 51, 52a]
कम् च ते परमम् कामम् करोमि किमु हर्षितः || १-१८-५२
पात्र भूतोऽसि मे ब्रह्मन् दिष्ट्या प्राप्तोऽसि मानद |
अद्य मे सफलम् जन्म जीवितम् च सु जीवितम् || १-१८-५३
यस्माद् विप्रेन्द्रम् अद्राक्षम् सुप्रभाता निशा मम |
"Oh, Brahman, as I am the one who is delighted for your arrival, and as you are the most eligible recipient from me, what is that choicest object of yours to be fulfilled by me, and in which way. Oh, endower of respect, for me your arrival is fortunate whereby my birth is fructified and my life flourished today, and wherefore I could see a great Brahman like you visiting my home, therefore the sun appears to have dawned in my night. [1-18-52b, 53, 54a]
पूर्वम् राजर्षि शब्देन तपसा द्योतित प्रभः || १-१८-५४
ब्रह्मर्षित्वम् अनुप्राप्तः पूज्योअसि बहुधा मया |
"Originally your glory was explicit by your title kingly-sage, and subsequently you attained the Absolute-sainthood by your ascesis, and you are venerable to me, in many ways." [1-18-54b, 55a]
तत् अद्भुतम् अभूत् विप्र पवित्रम् परमम् मम || १-१८-५५
शुभ क्षेत्र गतः च अहम् तव संदर्शनात् प्रभो |
"Oh, Brahman, thereby your arrival at my place is surprising and ideally sacred to me, and by your very appearance I have become one who has gone on a quiet pilgrimage. [1-18-55b, 56a]
ब्रूहि यत् प्रार्थितम् तुभ्यम् कार्यम् आगमनम् प्रति || १-१८-५६
इच्छाम् अनुगृहीतो अहम् त्वदर्थम् परिवृद्धये |
"You may tell me, entreating which work your arrival chanced here and I feel that I am indeed blessed and wish to make it happen to achieve results. [1-18-56b, 57a]
कार्यस्य न विमर्शम् च गंतुम् अर्हसि सुव्रत || १-१८-५७
कर्ता च अहम् अशेषेण दैवतम् हि भवान् मम |
"It is unapt of you to deliberate about the feasibility of the work, oh, sage with blest vows, while I am the fulfiller of it without any reminder, since you are god to me, indeed. [1-18-57b, 58a]
मम च अयम् अनुप्राप्तो महान् अभ्युदयो द्विज |
तव आगमन जः कृत्स्नो धर्मः च अनुत्तमो द्विज || १-१८-५८
"Oh, Brahman, this is the great prosperity that bechanced on me, and this is propriety in its entirety that bechanced on me, as a result of your arrival. [1-18-58b, c]
इति हृदय सुखम् निशंय वाक्यम्
श्रुति सुखम् आत्मवता विनीतम् उक्तम् |
प्रथित गुण यशा गुणैः विशिष्टः
परम ऋषिः परमम् जगाम हर्षम् || १-१८-५९
On hearing the words of high-minded Dasharatha, said that way in all his humbleness, and those that are pleasant to ears as well to heart, he who is a renowned for his personal attributes and a reputed one by his exceptional qualities, that sublime sage Vishvamitra obtained high rejoice. [1-18-59]
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदिकाव्ये बाल काण्डे अष्टादशः सर्गः