शूपर्णखां का रावण को फटकारना >> अरण्य-काण्ड



Shuurpanakha taunts Ravana for his un-kingly activities, by which his kingdom is going to face a calamitous situation soon. While gibing at him she narrates how a king, really fit for kingship, shall conduct the affairs of kingdom. She speaks many paradigms on which many commentaries are declined basing on kings and their vices.
This chapter vies with the 33rd chapter of Kishkindha Kanda in the attitudes of a king and his kingship. These two chapters, as detailed by ancient commentators, equally deal with raaja niiti shastra 'political science' and there in Kishkindha the only rescue to Sugreeva is Tara, who saves the face of Sugreeva before Lakshmana, whereas in here Ravana has none to come to his aid when chided by Shuurpanakha. Though Shuurpanakha is a sultry and harpy demoness, the Sage Valmiki has put some rational words on her tongue in forewarning Ravana.

ततः शूर्पणखा दीना रावणम् लोक रावणम् |
अमात्य मध्ये संक्रुद्धा परुषम् वाक्यम् अब्रवीत् || ३-३३-१
Then that doleful Shuurpanakha spoke these scornful words to Ravana who makes the world to wail in the presence of his ministers. [3-33-1]
प्रमत्तः काम भोगेषु स्वैर वृत्तो निरंकुशः |
समुत्पन्नम् भयम् घोरम् बोद्धव्यम् न अवबुध्यसे || ३-३३-२
"Highly infatuated with lustful gratifications you are incontinent and unchecked, thus you are unobservant of a calamitous jeopardy that has surfaced, though you ought to be observant of it as a king. [3-33-2]
सक्तम् ग्राम्येषु भोगेषु काम वृत्तम् महीपतिम् |
लुब्धम् न बहु मन्यन्ते श्मशान अग्निम् इव प्रजाः || ३-३३-३
"If a king deports himself in an overly self-assured manner, that too with self-serving motives, and clings only to dirty pleasures, he will be unhonoured by people as with a crematory fire. [3-33-3]
स्वयम् कार्याणि यः काले न अनुतिष्ठति पार्थिवः |
स तु वै सह राज्येन तैः च कार्यैः विनश्यति || ३-३३-४
"The king who will not deal with the concerns of kingdom, in person and on time, he and his kingdom and even those concerns of his kingdom will get ruined. [3-33-4]
अयुक्त चारम् दुर्दर्शम् अस्वाधीनम् नराधिपम् |
वर्जयन्ति नरा दूरात् नदी पंकम् इव द्विपाः || ३-३३-५
"If a king is inaccessible to spies for exchange of information, unavailable for subjects for an audience for a similar appraisal, more so if he is intemperately not able to impose self-discipline, people will eschew such a king from a distance as elephants will refrain themselves from the mud of river from a distance. [3-33-5]
ये न रक्षन्ति विषयम् अस्वाधीना नराधिपः |
ते न वृद्ध्या प्रकाशन्ते गिरयः सागरे यथा || ३-३३-६
"Which of those kings that will not safeguard their kingdoms by remaining in a self-restrained manner, they will not outshine advantageously, like mountains submerged under ocean. [3-33-6]
आत्मवद्भिः विगृह्य त्वम् देव गंधर्व दानवैः |
अयुक्त चारः चपलः कथम् राजा भविष्यसि || ३-३३-७
"Externally you are belligerent with sensible gods, gandharva-s and other demons, and internally you are needful of intelligence agents, and such as you are, you are an erratic even, then how can you thrive as a king! [3-33-7]
त्वम् तु बाल स्वभावत् च बुद्धि हीनः च राक्षस |
ज्ञातव्यम् तु न जानीषि कथम् राजा भविष्यसि || ३-३३-८
"Your bent is boyish and you are mindless, oh, demon, you are not able to know the knowable danger because you are carefree, and how do you thrive as a king! [3-33-8]
येषाम् चारः च कोशः च नयः च जयताम् वर |
अस्वाधीना नरेन्द्राणाम् प्राकृतैः ते जनैः समाः || ३-३३-९
"Oh, so-called best one among triumphant kings, those kings that do not retain spies, treasuries and strategies under their control, but vouchsafe them to others, they are of a piece with the peasantry. [3-33-9]
यस्मात् पश्यन्ति दूरस्थान् सर्वान् अर्थान् नराधिपाः |
चारेण तस्मात् उच्यन्ते राजानो दीर्घ चक्षुषः || ३-३३-१०
"Oh, titular overlord of humans, only some can be called prescient kings because they see all the situations happening distantly through their spies. [3-33-10]
अयुक्त चारम् मन्ये त्वाम् प्राकृतैः सचिवैः युतः |
स्व जनम् च जनस्थानम् निहतम् न अवबुध्यसे || ३-३३-११
"I believe that you have no spies worth their profession, yet you are associated with artless ministers worthy to worship you, hence you are incognisant of the ruination of all of your subjects in Janasthaana, including Janasthaana. [3-33-11]
चतुर्दश सहस्राणि रक्षसाम् भीम कर्मणाम् |
हतानि एकेन रामेण खरः च सह दूषणः || ३-३३-१२
"A single soul called Rama has eliminated fourteen thousand demons of dreadful deeds in Janasthaana, even Duushana is killed, even Khara is also killed. [3-33-12]
ऋषीणाम् अभयम् दत्तम् कृत क्षेमाः च दण्डकाः |
धर्षितम् च जनस्थानम् रामेण अक्लिष्ट कारिणा || ३-३३-१३
"That indefatigable champion Rama gave security to the sages, rendered Dandaka forest safeguarded, and he put Janasthaana to rout. [3-33-13]
त्वम् तु लुब्धः प्रमत्तः च पराधीनः च रावण |
विषये स्वे समुत्पन्नम् यो भयम् न अवबुध्यसे || ३-३३-१४
"On your part you are but selfish, hotheaded, and others like the appeasers of your lust, or these artless ministers, or those underpaid unfaithful spies hold you down, and such as you are, you are unperceptive of the calamity rising up against you in your own kingdom. [3-33-14]
तीक्ष्णम् अल्प प्रदातारम् प्रमत्तम् गर्वितम् शठम् |
व्यसने सर्व भूतानि न अभिधावन्ति पार्थिवम् || ३-३३-१५
"Should a king be overweening, an under-payer, an improvident, self-conceited, and dubious, all his subjects bid goodbye to such a king when he is in strife. [3-33-15]
अतिमानिनम् अग्राह्यम् आत्म संभावितम् नरम् |
क्रोधिनम् व्यसने हन्ति स्व जनो अपि नराधिपम् || ३-३३-१६
"Should a ruler be unduly self-conceited, self-centred, self-adulating and a spitfire too, his own kith and kin will ruin him when he is in distress. [3-33-16]
न अनुतिष्ठति कार्याणि भयेषु न बिभेति च |
क्षिप्रम् राज्यात् च्युतो दीनः तृणैः तुल्यो भवेत् इह || ३-३३-१७
"That king who does not officiate his good offices, nor un-panicked into panicky situations, he will be quickly overthrown from his kingdom, and on becoming a debased individual he will be equated with a piece of straw in this world. [3-33-17]
शुष्क काष्ठैः भवेत् कार्यम् लोष्टैः अपि च पांसुभिः |
न तु स्थानात् परिभ्रष्टैः कार्यम् स्यात् वसुधाधिपैः || ३-३३-१८
"Dried sticks, globs or the particles of dust are of some avail, but kings fallen from their position are of no avail. [3-33-18]
उपभुक्तम् यथा वासः स्रजो वा मृदिता यथा |
एवम् राज्यात् परिभ्रष्टः समर्थो अपि निरर्थकः || ३-३३-१९
"As to how a used up raiment or a crumpled flower-tassel is meaningless, likewise a king derelict from his kingdom, though functional, is meaningless. [3-33-19]
अप्रमत्तः च यो राजा सर्वज्ञो विजितेन्द्रियः |
कृतज्ञो धर्म शीलः च स राजा तिष्ठते चिरम् || ३-३३-२०
"Which king will be cautious, clever, conscientious, with his controlled senses, and thankful, that king survives for a long time. [3-33-20]
नयनाभ्याम् प्रसुप्तो वा जागर्ति नय चक्षुषा |
व्यक्त क्रोध प्रसादः च स राजा पूज्यते जनैः || ३-३३-२१
"He who keeps his mental eyes of wariness will be wakeful even though he slept well closing his physical eyes and he who will make his fury and favour evident to people without any concealment or cunningness, people will highly revere him as a king.
"He who keeps his mental eyes of wariness wakeful even though he sleeps fast closing his physical eyes, thus discarded are his fury and frenzy as well, because he knows as to who is to be treated furiously and who is to be favoured, and thus people will revere him as a judicious king. [3-33-21]
त्वम् तु रावण दुर्बुद्धिः गुणैः एतैः विवर्जितः |
यस्य ते अविदितः चारैः रक्षसाम् सुमहान् वधः || ३-३३-२२
"But, oh, Ravana, because you are imprudent you are bereft of these merits, and such as you are, unknown is the very great massacre of demons to you, though not personally, but at least through your spies. [3-33-22]
पर अवमंता विषयेषु संगवान्
न देश काल प्रविभाग तत्त्व वित् |
अयुक्त बुद्धिः गुण दोष निश्चये
विपन्न राज्यो न चिरात् विपत्स्यते || ३-३३-२३
"You are the humiliator of others, you hobnob only with your ravishes, and incognisant of the object for apportionment of time and place for your activities, as to when and where and how the things are to be dealt with. And, as you are not attending any kingly activity, or do not focus your mind in deciding rights and wrongs, thereby your kingdom will get ruined and you will be imperilled, not before long." Thus Shuurpanakha declaimed Ravana about his worthlessness as a king. [3-33-23]
इति स्व दोषान् परिकीर्तिताम् तया
समीक्ष्य बुद्ध्या क्षणदा चरेश्वरः |
धनेन दर्पेण बलेन च अन्वितो
विचिन्तयामास चिरम् स रावणः || ३-३३-२४
In this way when Shuurpanakha extolled only his negative traits, he that lord of night-walkers Ravana, who holds only his pride, power and prosperity dear to him, pored them over in his mind and contemplated over a time. [3-33-24]
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे त्रयः त्रिंशः सर्गः